Strategies for indigenous self-determination have emerged at unique junctures in national and global geopolitical arenas, challenging the formal hegemony of the nation-state with claims to land rights, sovereignty and self-governance. These movements are reflected qualitatively, in a variety of social, political, and cultural forms, including popular music in Australia. An analysis of the 'cultural apparatus', recordings, and popular performance events of indigenous musicians reveals the construction of 'arenas of empowerment' at a variety of goegraphical scales, within which genuine spaces of Aboriginal self-determination and self-expression can exist. Although these spaces often remain contested, new indigenous musical networks continue to emerge, simutaneously inscribing Aboriginal music into the Australian soundscape, and beginning to challenge normative geopolitical doctrines. The emergence of a vibrant Aboriginal popular music scene thereofre requires a rethinging of Australian music, and appeals for greater recognition of Aboriginal artists' sophisticated geopolitical strategies.