An oxygen-constrained system of crude oil reservoir environment was constructed to stimulate the growth of indigenous microbes, such as petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Addition of nitrogen and phosphorus sources was investigated for the growth of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The results show that nitrates and phosphates stimulated the growth of the bacteria and promoted the biodegradation of crude oil as the sole carbon source in this process. The minimum surface tension was 29.63 mN/m when the amounts of the nitrogen (NaNO3: NH42SO4 = 2:1) and phosphorus (KH2PO4: NaH2PO4 = 5:2) sources added were 0.8 wt% and 1.4 wt%, respectively. Furthermore, the dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were shifted from Arcobacter in production water to Pseudomonas after the first subculture and then to Bacillus after the sixth subculture. The heteroatom groups in the crude oil were biodegraded simultaneously with normal alkanes and alkyl cyclohexanes. Addition of the nutrients resulted in microbial growth, microbial community shift, and enhanced microbial degradation.