Highly-efficient recovery of uranium from seawater is of great concern in the growing demand for nuclear energy. Bacteria are thought to be potential alternatives for uranium recovery. Herein, a Bacillus velezensis strain, UUS-1, with highly-efficient uranium immobilization capacity is isolated and is used in the recovery of uranium from seawater. The strain exhibits time-dependent uranium recovery capacity and only immobilizes uranium after growing for 12 h. The carboxyl group together with the amino group inside the bacterial cells, but not previously identified phosphate group, are essential for uranium immobilization. UUS-1 shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity by producing diverse antimicrobial metabolites, which endows the strain with innate resistance to the biofouling of marine microorganisms. Based on the dry weight of the initially used bacterial cultures, UUS-1 concentrates uranium by 6.26 × 105 times and reaches the high immobilization capacity of 9.46 ± 0.39 mg U g-1 bacterial cultures in real seawater within 48 h, which is the fastest uranium immobilization capacity observed from real seawater. Overall considering the ultrafast and highly-efficient uranium recovery capacity and the innate anti-biofouling activity, UUS-1 is a promising alternative for uranium recovery from seawater.