The breeding biology and reproductive success of the endangered Regent Honeyeater Xanthomyza phrygia were studied over three breeding seasons in the Capertee Valley, central New South Wales. Results indicate that, while severe drought may result in little breeding, the Regent Honeyeater is not limited by reproductive success which is within the expected range for Australian passerines. The breeding season started as early as July although peak egg laying was in September. Nesting early in the season usually coincided with flowering of the mistletoe Amyema cambagei in a gallery forest of Casuarina cunninghamiana. Nectar from Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon was also important in supporting nesting, particularly later in the season. Renesting by both successful and failed breeders occurred in both the initial breeding territory and at distant locations. In 1995, renesting occurred c. 20 km from first nests, in remnant trees in open paddocks. Early nests produced significantly more fledglings per successful nest than later ones although overall nesting success in 1995 was greater later in the season. Site fidelity was demonstrated for some males although two birds were found breeding up to 85 km from their site of the previous year.