Rural Australians experience a higher burden of diet-related chronic disease than their metropolitan counterparts. Dietary intake data is needed to understand priorities for nutrition initiatives that reduce disparities in the health of rural Australians. A systematic literature review aimed to synthesize the evidence on dietary intakes in adult populations residing in rural and remote Australia, to identify areas for intervention, and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted and 22 articles were identified for inclusion. Half of the included studies (50%) collected dietary data using non-validated questionnaires and nearly half (41%) did not benchmark dietary intakes against public health guidelines. Most studies (95%) showed that rural populations have suboptimal dietary intakes. Despite the high level of preventable diet-related disease in rural and remote Australia, this review identified that there is insufficient high-quality dietary data available and a lack of consistency between dietary outcomes collected in research to inform priority areas for intervention. Further cross-sectional or longitudinal data should be collected across all remoteness areas, using robust, validated dietary assessment tools to adequately inform nutrition priorities and policies that reduce rural health disparities.