A computer simulation on the basis of the Finite Element Method and Monte Carlo Model is developed to simulate the microstructure of the non-uniformly deformed copper workpiece after annealing. Using the computer simulation, the effects of annealing time and temperature on the microstructure inhomogeneity of the workpiece are simulated and investigated quantitatively, by defining an Inhomogeneity Factor, to design an annealing program for reducing the microstructure inhomogeneity. The results show that with increasing the parameters of annealing time and temperature, the inhomogeneity is decreased when one of the parameters is constant. Also, at high annealing temperature, the annealing time changes the inhomogeneity slowly compared with which occurs at low annealing temperature. The simulation results agree well with the experimental values. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.