Carbon is a simple, stable and popular element with many allotropes. The carbon family members include carbon dots, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, graphene, graphite, graphdiyne and hard carbon, etc. They can be divided into different dimensions, and their structures can be open and porous. Moreover, it is very interesting to dope them with other elements (metal or non-metal) or hybridize them with other materials to form composites. The elemental and structural characteristics offer us to explore their applications in energy, environment, bioscience, medicine, electronics and others. Among them, energy storage and conversion are extremely attractive, as advances in this area may improve our life quality and environment. Some energy devices will be included herein, such as lithium-ion batteries, lithium sulfur batteries, sodium-ion batteries, potassium-ion batteries, dual ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and others. Additionally, carbon-based electrocatalysts are also studied in hydrogen evolution reaction and carbon dioxide reduction reaction. However, there are still many challenges in the design and preparation of electrode and electrocatalytic materials. The research related to carbon materials for energy storage and conversion is extremely active, and this has motivated us to contribute with a roadmap on ‘Carbon Materials in Energy Storage and Conversion’.