Fiber meshes of poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate)/ poly(ethylene oxide) (PHB/PEO) with different concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) were prepared by electrospinning for assessment as a polymer based drug delivery system. The electrospun fibers were characterized at morphological, molecular and mechanical levels. The bactericidal potential of PHB and PHB/PEO electrospun fibers, with and without CHX, was investigated against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by disk diffusion susceptibility tests. Electrospun fibers containing CHX exhibited bactericidal activity. PHB/PEO-1%CHX displayed higher CHX release levels and equivalent antibacterial activity when compared to PHB/PEO with 5 and 10 wt% CHX. Bactericidal performance of samples with 1 wt% CHX was assessed by Colony Forming Units (CFU), where reductions of 100% and 99.69% against E. coli and S. aureus were achieved, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.