This study aims to investigate the performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for removing five polycyclic musks (PCMs), which are common active ingredients of personal care and household cleaning products. A laboratory scale AnMBR system was used in this investigation. Concentrations of the PCMs in both the liquid and biosolids phase were measured to conduct a mass balance analysis and elucidate their fate during AnMBR treatment. The AnMBR was effective for removing PCMs from the aqueous phase by a combination of biotransformation and sorption onto the biosolids. However, bio-
transformation was observed to be the dominant removal mechanism for all five PCMs. Enantioselective analysis of the PCMs in influent, effluent and biomass samples indicated that there was negligible enanti-oselectivity in the removal of these PCMs. Accordingly, all enantiomers of these PCMs can be expected to be removed by AnMBR with similar efficiency.