Uniform surfactant-free copper selenide (Cu2- x Se) nanowires were prepared via an aqueous route. The effects of reaction parameters such as Cu/Se precursor ratio, Se/NaOH ratio, and reaction time on the formation of nanowires were comprehensively investigated. The results show that Cu2- x Se nanowires were formed through the assembling of CuSe nanoplates, accompanied by their self-redox reactions. The resultant Cu2- x Se nanowires were explored as a potential thermoelectric candidate in comparison with commercial copper selenide powder. Both synthetic and commercial samples have a similar performance and their figures of merit are 0.29 and 0.38 at 750K, respectively.