Cu-14Fe and Cu-17Fe alloys were produced by casting and processed into in situ composites by hot and cold deformation, and intermediate heat treatment. The microstructures were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope and an optical microscope. The electrical conductivity was evaluated by using a digital micro-ohmmeter. The tensile strength was measured by using an electronic tensile-testing machine. The results show that there are similar cast and deformation microstructures in Cu-14Fe and Cu-17Fe. The tensile strength of deformation-processed Cu-17Fe in situ composite is much higher than that of Cu-14Fe, while the conductivity of deformation-processed Cu-17Fe in situ composite is slightly lower than that of Cu-14Fe at the same cold deformation strain. The Cu-17Fe in situ composite produced by using proper thermo-mechanical processing possesses a good combination of tensile strength and electrical conductivity.