Background: Conceptualisations of recovery from substance use disorder (SUD) and mental illness overlap significantly, and the rate of comorbidity of these problems is high. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), a measure originally developed for individuals with mental illness. Method: A sample of 1094 people with SUD attending residential treatment services provided by the Australian Salvation Army completed the RAS and other outcome measures at admission. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated a poor fit of the data to the five factor solution previously identified in mental illness samples. Exploratory factor analysis, however, produced three of the five factors included in the CFA, and two factors which arranged constructs in a slightly different manner from previous factor analytic studies in samples with mental illness. Correlations of these factors with other symptom distress and recovery measures indicated satisfactory convergent and divergent validity. Conclusions: The study provides modest support for the use of the RAS in groups with SUD.