Gas emission from Australian coal mining is estimated to account for 4-5% of the nation’s 559 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e) annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the intense focus on global GHG management and reduction, to slow the rate of climate change, significant community and political pressure is mounting to reduce gas emission from coal mining. This paper discusses the various sources of gas emission from an operating underground coal mine, with particular focus on longwall mining which accounts for the majority of Australian underground coal production. A variety of gas drainage techniques, both from surface and from within operating underground mines, are described along with a range of commonly encountered problems that exist within coal mine gas drainage system that prevent optimum drainage system performance being achieved. Two variations of a new surface based gas drainage system for the removal of goaf/gob gas emissions to improve longwall mine productivity and safety are described. This proposed new technique aims to cost effectively increase the total gas volume extracted from the goaf (gob) whilst maintaining a relatively consistent gas production rate throughout the operating life of the well. Various methods of coal mine methane gas utilisation are examined, including the capture and utilisation of low concentration methane present in mine ventilation air.