Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) are implicated in schizophrenia. We characterized mGluR2 and 3 mRNA in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) and mesencephalon, and then compared cases with schizophrenia to matched controls. In the human brain, both receptors were expressed in the PFC and, unlike the rodent, in dopaminergic (DA) cell groups. In schizophrenia, we found significantly higher levels of mGluR2 mRNA in the PFC white matter. The expression of mGluR2, 3 in DA cells provide a mechanism for glutamate to modulate dopamine release in the human brain and this species-specific difference may be critical to understanding rodent models in schizophrenia.