N-nitrosamines and boron are small solutes of particular concern during water recycling applications. Here, we
evaluated the rejection of seven N-nitrosamines and boron under a range of operating conditions and feed
solution characteristics. The evaluationwas conducted using a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system to appropriately
simulate hydrodynamic conditions of full-scale RO installations. The rejection of seven N-nitrosamines
by the pilot RO system varied significantly in the range from 31 to 94%, and rejection increased in the increasing
order of their molecular weight. Rejection values obtained from this pilot-scale study were lower than those
previously reported in laboratory-scale studies. These discrepancieswere attributed to a difference in RO system
operating condition (i.e. recovery) between the pilot-scale study (25%) and laboratory-scale study (b0.1%).
Nevertheless, rejection data reported here validate the recent findings fromlaboratory-scale studies with respect
to the impact of permeate flux, feed temperature and feed pH on separation efficiencies of N-nitrosamines. Data
obtained from this pilot-scale study also validate the strong correlation between boron and NDMA rejection at or
below pH 8 regardless of operating conditions and feed solution characteristics. The results suggest that boron
rejection can be used as a surrogate for NDMA rejection in full-scale RO installations.