School garden and kitchen-based activities have potential as health-promoting school initiatives but lack well-designed evaluation frameworks. This article outlines an evaluation of a national kitchen garden program conducted in Australian primary schools. The aim was to evaluate the implementation and impact of a national garden and kitchen program in Australia, including child and health-related impacts of the program, and program implementation factors. The evaluation was undertaken using a multi-component, hierarchical evaluation framework that incorporated a modified case-control design and mixed methods. A cross-section of initiative (N=28) and comparison (N=14) schools was included.