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Direct detection of brominated flame retardants from plastic e-waste using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry

Journal Article


Abstract


  • RATIONALE

    The worldwide generation of plastic electronic waste (e-waste) is reaching epic proportions. The presence of toxic brominated flame retardants (BFRs) within these materials limits their ability to be recycled, resulting in large amounts of e-waste reaching landfills.

    METHODS

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) employing a chip-based nanoelectrospray coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer represents a novel control technology for directing e-waste streams for recycling. LESA-MS allows direct sampling and analysis of solid material, capable of detecting BFRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A), the two most common flame retardant additives currently in circulation.

    RESULTS

    Authentic PBDE congeners and TBBP-A were deposited on glass and characterised by LESA-MS analysis. PBDEs are notoriously difficult to detect via electrospray; however, they were detected with ease by utilising a combination of nanoelectrospray and solvent doped with ammonium acetate. In situ detection of TBBP-A within plastic e-waste was also possible by performing LESA-MS on the surface of granulated material provided by a commercial waste depot. E-waste sample analysis was completely automated, with each sample analysed in less than 1 min.

    CONCLUSIONS

    LESA-MS is fast, simple, and robust allowing unambiguous detection of a range of additives through tandem mass spectrometry. LESA-MS does not require dissolution of the solid matrix nor the sample to be present under vacuum and the use of separative techniques prior to analysis is not necessary.

UOW Authors


  •   Rae, Ian D. (external author)
  •   Paine, Martin (external author)
  •   Blanksby, Stephen J. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2014

Citation


  • Paine, M. R. L., Rae, I. D. & Blanksby, S. J. (2014). Direct detection of brominated flame retardants from plastic e-waste using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 28 (11), 1203-1208.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84899464216

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers/1608

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 5

Start Page


  • 1203

End Page


  • 1208

Volume


  • 28

Issue


  • 11

Abstract


  • RATIONALE

    The worldwide generation of plastic electronic waste (e-waste) is reaching epic proportions. The presence of toxic brominated flame retardants (BFRs) within these materials limits their ability to be recycled, resulting in large amounts of e-waste reaching landfills.

    METHODS

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) employing a chip-based nanoelectrospray coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer represents a novel control technology for directing e-waste streams for recycling. LESA-MS allows direct sampling and analysis of solid material, capable of detecting BFRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A), the two most common flame retardant additives currently in circulation.

    RESULTS

    Authentic PBDE congeners and TBBP-A were deposited on glass and characterised by LESA-MS analysis. PBDEs are notoriously difficult to detect via electrospray; however, they were detected with ease by utilising a combination of nanoelectrospray and solvent doped with ammonium acetate. In situ detection of TBBP-A within plastic e-waste was also possible by performing LESA-MS on the surface of granulated material provided by a commercial waste depot. E-waste sample analysis was completely automated, with each sample analysed in less than 1 min.

    CONCLUSIONS

    LESA-MS is fast, simple, and robust allowing unambiguous detection of a range of additives through tandem mass spectrometry. LESA-MS does not require dissolution of the solid matrix nor the sample to be present under vacuum and the use of separative techniques prior to analysis is not necessary.

UOW Authors


  •   Rae, Ian D. (external author)
  •   Paine, Martin (external author)
  •   Blanksby, Stephen J. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2014

Citation


  • Paine, M. R. L., Rae, I. D. & Blanksby, S. J. (2014). Direct detection of brominated flame retardants from plastic e-waste using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 28 (11), 1203-1208.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84899464216

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers/1608

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 5

Start Page


  • 1203

End Page


  • 1208

Volume


  • 28

Issue


  • 11