The effect of thermomechanical processing conditions on Nb clustering and precipitation in both austenite and ferrite in a Nb-Ti microalloyed steel was studied using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. A decrease in the deformation temperature increased the Nb-rich precipitation in austenite and decreased the extent of precipitation in ferrite. Microstructural mechanisms that explain this variation are discussed. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.