• Cognitive ageing involves multiple interacting systems which may be influenced
by components of plants. Thus, certain herbal extracts may be
effective in maintaining psychological health or 'wellbeing', particularly in
• Certain plants have evolved with components that can modulate behaviour,
including cognitive performance.
• There is good evidence that certain extracts have properties that enhance
cognition. These include extracts of ginkgo, ginseng, salvia, guarana, lemon
balm, bacopa and polyphenols.
• In the domain of mood, lemon balm has consistently been shown to have
a calming effect; evidence for other herbals is less clear, although cocoa
polyphenols may have anti-fatigue effects.
• One constant challenge for the psychopharmacology of herbal extracts is
the use of standardised extracts and the use of multiple extracts in some