Skip to main content
placeholder image

Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials.

Authors


  •   Reay, Jonathon (external author)
  •   Stough, Con K. (external author)
  •   Neale, Chris (external author)
  •   Scholey, Andrew (external author)
  •   Camfield, David A.

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • Neale, C., Camfield, D. A., Reay, J., Stough, C. & Scholey, A. (2013). Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75 (3), 728-737.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84873162091

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/sspapers/499

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 9

Start Page


  • 728

End Page


  • 737

Volume


  • 75

Issue


  • 3

Abstract


  • Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials.

Authors


  •   Reay, Jonathon (external author)
  •   Stough, Con K. (external author)
  •   Neale, Chris (external author)
  •   Scholey, Andrew (external author)
  •   Camfield, David A.

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • Neale, C., Camfield, D. A., Reay, J., Stough, C. & Scholey, A. (2013). Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75 (3), 728-737.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84873162091

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/sspapers/499

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 9

Start Page


  • 728

End Page


  • 737

Volume


  • 75

Issue


  • 3