The superior performance of lithium metal oxide cathode materials is a key aspect for the advanced development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology in portable electronics and high-end applications such as renewable energy units, electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) etc. However, this battery technology suffers from some critical problems related to electrochemical performance, storage efficiency, safety and cost. Tremendous research is performed globally to solve these problems associated with battery performance. One of the potential ways to improve battery electrochemical performance and safety is by developing hybrid lithium metal oxide based one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures by simple and advanced electrospinning processes. These electrospun nanostructures of continuous fibrous morphology are attractive as new cathode materials due to their shorter Li ion diffusion pathways, high surface area and porous network. Since lithium-ion battery technology growth is tremendous and grabbing the attention of the world-wide scientific community, an update on recent progress in such fields is required. In this review, we discuss an in-depth summary about the significant role of electrospun lithium metal oxide based cathode materials in improving ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability, rate capability and safety; as well as possible future research challenges and prospects. In addition, we briefly describe the very recent progress of electrospun materials in anode and separator/electrolyte applications of LIBs.