In February, 2008, the South Eastern Sydney Illawarra Public Health Unit investigated an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis within the south east region of Sydney, Australia. Thirty-one cases with laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis and 97 age- and geographically matched controls selected by random digit dialling were recruited into a case-control study and interviewed for infection risk factors. Cryptosporidiosis was associated with swimming at Facility A (matched odds ratio = 19.4, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–100.8) and exposure to household contacts with diarrhoea (matched odds ratio = 7.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.9–31.4) in multivariable conditional logistic regression models. A protective effect for any animal contact was also found (matched odds ratio = 0.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.1–0.7). Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 was identified in 8 of 11 diagnostic stool samples available for cases. This investigation reaffirms the importance of public swimming pools as potential sources of Cryptosporidium infection and ensuring their compliance with water-quality guidelines. The protective effect of animal contact may be suggestive of past exposure leading to immunity.