The scope of application of membranes in biotechnology has widened significantly in the
recent years. Although many of the membrane options are yet to achieve wide industrial
applications, they show tremendous potential for the transformation and synthesis of valueadded
products, energy production, therapeutic applications and environmental remediation.
This chapter provides an overview of membrane applications in selected established and
emerging biotechnology processes. Approaches to overcoming the technology bottlenecks
that impede the scale-up of such systems have been discussed in this chapter.