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Impact of chemical cleaning on the nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs): The role of cleaning temperature

Journal Article


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Abstract


  • This study investigated the impact of chemical cleaning on the physicochemical properties of a

    nanofiltration membrane and its subsequent separation efficiency of inorganic salts and two

    pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Chemical cleaning

    was simulated by immersing virgin membrane samples in aqueous citric acid, sodium hydroxide

    (NaOH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at various

    temperatures for 18 h. The cleaning temperature did not exert any discernible impact on the surface

    charge of the NF270 membrane selected in this study. However, high cleaning temperatures were shown

    to either amplify or reduce the impact of chemical cleaning on several other membrane properties

    (including hydrophobicity, surface roughness and permeability) as well as the rejection of both inorganic

    salts and PhACs. The influence of chemical cleaning on the membrane surface roughness was enhanced

    at elevated cleaning temperatures. Similarly, at a high cleaning temperature, caustic and acidic cleaning

    caused a more significant increase in the membrane surface hydrophobicity than that at an ambient

    temperature. An increase in the cleaning temperature could also slightly amplify the decrease in the

    membrane permeability due to acidic cleaning. When a caustic cleaning solution (pH 11.5) was used, the

    membrane permeability only varied slightly with the temperature. Results obtained from Fourier

    transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis suggest that chemical cleaning even at a high

    temperature did not permanently alter the chemical composition of the membrane active or support

    layer. Indeed, the effects of chemical cleaning at a high temperature on the physicochemical properties of

    the membrane could be attributed to the conformational changes of the membrane polymeric matrix.

    Chemical cleaning using citric acid, SDS or EDTA at a high temperature resulted in a considerable

    increase in the rejection of salts and PhACs in their neutral form. On the other hand, caustic cleaning at an

    elevated temperature had no discernible impact on the rejection of inorganic salts and neutral PhACs.

    This is because caustic cleaning and an elevated cleaning temperature cause opposing effects on the

    rejection of these solutes. Chemical cleaning at all temperatures investigated in this study did not affect

    the removal of negatively charged sulfamethoxazole.

Authors


  •   Simon, Alexander R. (external author)
  •   Price, William E.
  •   Nghiem, Long D. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • Simon, A. R., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2013). Impact of chemical cleaning on the nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs): The role of cleaning temperature. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 44 (5), 713-723.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84880614283

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2157&context=eispapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/eispapers/1148

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 10

Start Page


  • 713

End Page


  • 723

Volume


  • 44

Issue


  • 5

Place Of Publication


  • Netherlands

Abstract


  • This study investigated the impact of chemical cleaning on the physicochemical properties of a

    nanofiltration membrane and its subsequent separation efficiency of inorganic salts and two

    pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Chemical cleaning

    was simulated by immersing virgin membrane samples in aqueous citric acid, sodium hydroxide

    (NaOH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at various

    temperatures for 18 h. The cleaning temperature did not exert any discernible impact on the surface

    charge of the NF270 membrane selected in this study. However, high cleaning temperatures were shown

    to either amplify or reduce the impact of chemical cleaning on several other membrane properties

    (including hydrophobicity, surface roughness and permeability) as well as the rejection of both inorganic

    salts and PhACs. The influence of chemical cleaning on the membrane surface roughness was enhanced

    at elevated cleaning temperatures. Similarly, at a high cleaning temperature, caustic and acidic cleaning

    caused a more significant increase in the membrane surface hydrophobicity than that at an ambient

    temperature. An increase in the cleaning temperature could also slightly amplify the decrease in the

    membrane permeability due to acidic cleaning. When a caustic cleaning solution (pH 11.5) was used, the

    membrane permeability only varied slightly with the temperature. Results obtained from Fourier

    transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis suggest that chemical cleaning even at a high

    temperature did not permanently alter the chemical composition of the membrane active or support

    layer. Indeed, the effects of chemical cleaning at a high temperature on the physicochemical properties of

    the membrane could be attributed to the conformational changes of the membrane polymeric matrix.

    Chemical cleaning using citric acid, SDS or EDTA at a high temperature resulted in a considerable

    increase in the rejection of salts and PhACs in their neutral form. On the other hand, caustic cleaning at an

    elevated temperature had no discernible impact on the rejection of inorganic salts and neutral PhACs.

    This is because caustic cleaning and an elevated cleaning temperature cause opposing effects on the

    rejection of these solutes. Chemical cleaning at all temperatures investigated in this study did not affect

    the removal of negatively charged sulfamethoxazole.

Authors


  •   Simon, Alexander R. (external author)
  •   Price, William E.
  •   Nghiem, Long D. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • Simon, A. R., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2013). Impact of chemical cleaning on the nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs): The role of cleaning temperature. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 44 (5), 713-723.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84880614283

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2157&context=eispapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/eispapers/1148

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 10

Start Page


  • 713

End Page


  • 723

Volume


  • 44

Issue


  • 5

Place Of Publication


  • Netherlands