The morphology and electronic structure of a Li4Ti5O12 anode are known to determine its electrical and electrochemical properties in lithium rechargeable batteries. Ag-Li4Ti5O12 nanofibers have been rationally designed and synthesized by an electrospinning technique to meet the requirements of one-dimensional (1D) morphology and superior electrical conductivity. Herein, we have found that the 1D Ag-Li4Ti5O12 nanofibers show enhanced specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability compared to bare Li4Ti5O12 nanofibers, due to the Ag nanoparticles (<5 nm), which are mainly distributed at interfaces between Li4Ti5O12 primary particles. This structural morphology gives rise to 20% higher rate capability than bare Li4Ti5O12 nanofibers by facilitating the charge transfer kinetics. Our findings provide an effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries.