The focal point of the international law framework for the protection of the marine
environment is Part XII of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of
the Sea (LOSC)1 on the Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment,
complemented by a burgeoning variety of instruments on international
environmental law and an evolving body of customary international law principles.
Substantial implementation of this framework has occurred in marine areas within
national jurisdiction with some transboundary collaboration between States in
different regions to protect their marine environment across national boundaries.
The regulatory framework for environmental protection in marine areas beyond
national jurisdiction (ABNJ) is at a much earlier stage of development as States
grapple with the broader institutional and legal challenges posed by high seas