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Importance of the inverted control in measuring holistic face processing with the composite effect and part-whole effect

Journal Article


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Abstract


  • Holistic coding for faces is shown in several illusions that demonstrate integration of the

    percept across the entire face. The illusions occur upright but, crucially, not inverted. Converting

    the illusions into experimental tasks that measure their strength – and thus index

    degree of holistic coding – is often considered straightforward yet in fact relies on a hidden

    assumption, namely that there is no contribution to the experimental measure from

    secondary cognitive factors. For the composite effect, a relevant secondary factor is size

    of the “spotlight” of visuospatial attention.The composite task assumes this spotlight can

    be easily restricted to the target half (e.g., top-half) of the compound face stimulus. Yet, if

    this assumption were not true then a large spotlight, in the absence of holistic perception,

    could produce a false composite effect, present even for inverted faces and contributing

    partially to the score for upright faces.We reviewevidence that various factors can influence

    spotlight size: race/culture (Asians often prefer a more global distribution of attention than

    Caucasians); sex (females can be more global); appearance of the join or gap between face

    halves; and location of the eyes, which typically attract attention. Results from five experiments

    then show inverted faces can sometimes produce large false composite effects,

    and imply that whether this happens or not depends on complex interactions between

    causal factors. We also report, for both identity and expression, that only top-half face

    targets (containing eyes) produce valid composite measures. A sixth experiment demonstrates

    an example of a false inverted part-whole effect, where encoding-specificity is the

    secondary cognitive factor.We conclude the inverted face control should be tested in all

    composite and part-whole studies, and an effect for upright faces should be interpreted

    as a pure measure of holistic processing only when the experimental design produces no

    effect inverted.

    This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. it is reproduced with permission

Authors


  •   McKone, Elinor (external author)
  •   Davies, A (external author)
  •   Darke, H (external author)
  •   Crookes, Kate (external author)
  •   Wickramariyaratne, T (external author)
  •   Zappia, S (external author)
  •   Fiorentini, C (external author)
  •   Favelle, Simone K.
  •   Broughton, M (external author)
  •   Fernando, Dilum N. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • McKone, E., Davies, A., Darke, H., Crookes, K., Wickramariyaratne, T., Zappia, S., Fiorentini, C., Favelle, S. K., Broughton, M. & Fernando, D. (2013). Importance of the inverted control in measuring holistic face processing with the composite effect and part-whole effect. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 (33), 1-21.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84885362926

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1054&context=sspapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/sspapers/55

Number Of Pages


  • 20

Start Page


  • 1

End Page


  • 21

Volume


  • 4

Issue


  • 33

Abstract


  • Holistic coding for faces is shown in several illusions that demonstrate integration of the

    percept across the entire face. The illusions occur upright but, crucially, not inverted. Converting

    the illusions into experimental tasks that measure their strength – and thus index

    degree of holistic coding – is often considered straightforward yet in fact relies on a hidden

    assumption, namely that there is no contribution to the experimental measure from

    secondary cognitive factors. For the composite effect, a relevant secondary factor is size

    of the “spotlight” of visuospatial attention.The composite task assumes this spotlight can

    be easily restricted to the target half (e.g., top-half) of the compound face stimulus. Yet, if

    this assumption were not true then a large spotlight, in the absence of holistic perception,

    could produce a false composite effect, present even for inverted faces and contributing

    partially to the score for upright faces.We reviewevidence that various factors can influence

    spotlight size: race/culture (Asians often prefer a more global distribution of attention than

    Caucasians); sex (females can be more global); appearance of the join or gap between face

    halves; and location of the eyes, which typically attract attention. Results from five experiments

    then show inverted faces can sometimes produce large false composite effects,

    and imply that whether this happens or not depends on complex interactions between

    causal factors. We also report, for both identity and expression, that only top-half face

    targets (containing eyes) produce valid composite measures. A sixth experiment demonstrates

    an example of a false inverted part-whole effect, where encoding-specificity is the

    secondary cognitive factor.We conclude the inverted face control should be tested in all

    composite and part-whole studies, and an effect for upright faces should be interpreted

    as a pure measure of holistic processing only when the experimental design produces no

    effect inverted.

    This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. it is reproduced with permission

Authors


  •   McKone, Elinor (external author)
  •   Davies, A (external author)
  •   Darke, H (external author)
  •   Crookes, Kate (external author)
  •   Wickramariyaratne, T (external author)
  •   Zappia, S (external author)
  •   Fiorentini, C (external author)
  •   Favelle, Simone K.
  •   Broughton, M (external author)
  •   Fernando, Dilum N. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • McKone, E., Davies, A., Darke, H., Crookes, K., Wickramariyaratne, T., Zappia, S., Fiorentini, C., Favelle, S. K., Broughton, M. & Fernando, D. (2013). Importance of the inverted control in measuring holistic face processing with the composite effect and part-whole effect. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 (33), 1-21.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84885362926

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1054&context=sspapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/sspapers/55

Number Of Pages


  • 20

Start Page


  • 1

End Page


  • 21

Volume


  • 4

Issue


  • 33