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A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Objective

    Universal salt iodization is an effective strategy to optimize population-level iodine. At the same time as salt-lowering initiatives are encouraged globally, there is concern about compromised iodine intakes. This study investigated whether salt intakes at recommended levels resulted in a suboptimal iodine status in a country where salt is the vehicle for iodine fortification.

    Methods

    Three 24-h urine samples were collected for the assessment of urinary sodium and one sample was taken for urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in a convenience sample of 262 adult men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Median UIC was compared across categories of sodium excretion equivalent to salt intakes lower than 5, 5 to 9, and greater than or equal to 9 g/d.

    Results

    The median UIC was 120 μg/L (interquartile range 75.3–196.3), indicating iodine sufficiency. Less one-fourth (23.2%) of subjects had urinary sodium excretion values within the desirable range (salt <5 g/d), 50.7% had high values (5–9 g/d), and 22.8% had very high values (≥9 g/d). No association between urinary iodine and mean 3 × 24-h urinary sodium concentration was found (r = 0.087, P = 0.198) and UIC status did not differ according to urinary sodium categories (P = 0.804).

    Conclusion

    In a country with mandatory universal salt iodization, consumers with salt intakes within the recommended range (<5 g/d) are iodine replete, and median UIC does not differ across categories of salt intake. This indicates that much of the dietary salt is provided from non-iodinated sources, presumably added to processed foods.

Authors


  •   Charlton, Karen E.
  •   Jooste, Pieter L. (external author)
  •   Steyn, Krisela (external author)
  •   Levitt, Naomi (external author)
  •   Ghosh, Abhijeet (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • Charlton, K. E., Jooste, P. L., Steyn, K., Levitt, N. S. & Ghosh, A. (2013). A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory. Nutrition, 29 (4), 630-634.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84875372002

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers/379

Number Of Pages


  • 4

Start Page


  • 630

End Page


  • 634

Volume


  • 29

Issue


  • 4

Abstract


  • Objective

    Universal salt iodization is an effective strategy to optimize population-level iodine. At the same time as salt-lowering initiatives are encouraged globally, there is concern about compromised iodine intakes. This study investigated whether salt intakes at recommended levels resulted in a suboptimal iodine status in a country where salt is the vehicle for iodine fortification.

    Methods

    Three 24-h urine samples were collected for the assessment of urinary sodium and one sample was taken for urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in a convenience sample of 262 adult men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Median UIC was compared across categories of sodium excretion equivalent to salt intakes lower than 5, 5 to 9, and greater than or equal to 9 g/d.

    Results

    The median UIC was 120 μg/L (interquartile range 75.3–196.3), indicating iodine sufficiency. Less one-fourth (23.2%) of subjects had urinary sodium excretion values within the desirable range (salt <5 g/d), 50.7% had high values (5–9 g/d), and 22.8% had very high values (≥9 g/d). No association between urinary iodine and mean 3 × 24-h urinary sodium concentration was found (r = 0.087, P = 0.198) and UIC status did not differ according to urinary sodium categories (P = 0.804).

    Conclusion

    In a country with mandatory universal salt iodization, consumers with salt intakes within the recommended range (<5 g/d) are iodine replete, and median UIC does not differ across categories of salt intake. This indicates that much of the dietary salt is provided from non-iodinated sources, presumably added to processed foods.

Authors


  •   Charlton, Karen E.
  •   Jooste, Pieter L. (external author)
  •   Steyn, Krisela (external author)
  •   Levitt, Naomi (external author)
  •   Ghosh, Abhijeet (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2013

Citation


  • Charlton, K. E., Jooste, P. L., Steyn, K., Levitt, N. S. & Ghosh, A. (2013). A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory. Nutrition, 29 (4), 630-634.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84875372002

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers/379

Number Of Pages


  • 4

Start Page


  • 630

End Page


  • 634

Volume


  • 29

Issue


  • 4