Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important tool for marketing researchers to estimate a network
of causal relationships linking two or more complex concepts. The PLS approach to SEM, also known as
component based SEM, is becoming more prominent in estimating complex models due to its soft
modeling assumptions. This study elucidates the use of component based SEM in estimating a complex
higher order model with a small sample size. The utility of the approach is illustrated empirically by
estimating a third-order, reflective, hierarchical service quality model in the context of mHealth. The
findings of the study confirm the conceptual and methodological advances of component based SEM to
establish rigor in complex modeling.