The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that serum levels of phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) and minerals are associated with the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Chinese population and the profiles of changes may differ from patients with MetS from Western countries. The levels of serum PL, FA, and minerals were examined in 201 subjects (52 with MetS and 149 healthy controls without any MetS components) in China. The saturated FA proportion in serum was significantly higher, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA (22:6n-3: −16%, P = .006; 20:4n-6: −36%, P < .001), and estimated δ-5 desaturase were significantly lower in the MetS group compared with those that are not MetS. Subjects with MetS had higher levels of serum Zn (P = .037) and Mg (P < .001) than subjects without MetS. The proportion of n-3 PUFA was significantly negatively correlated with body mass index and waist circumference. In conclusion, serum PL FA composition and serum minerals in Chinese men with MetS differed significantly from that of healthy individuals, reflecting a decrease in n-3 and n-6 PUFA, especially 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6, and an increase in saturated FA, magnesium, and zinc. These changes may reflect improper dietary intake in subjects with MetS, and dietary modification could be useful to prevent MetS and as an adjunctive therapy.