"In this work, the potential of using coconut shell, which is very cheap and readily available, for the production of graphitic nanocarbon three-dimensional networks is investigated. The three-dimensional carbon has been produced via the wet-impregnation of coconut shell powder with a transition metal catalyst. The novel process employed offers low costs and environmental advantages, with biological waste used in place of carbonaceous precursor as the feedstock. Nanocarbon/tin oxide composites were prepared via wet-impregnation and the solvothermal method, using tin chloride solution with the activated nanocarbon. The electrochemical performances of the three-dimensional nanocarbon doped with tin oxide and of activated nanocarbon alone as anode materials were investigated in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. One composite made by using the solvothermal method shows stable cyclic retention up to 100 cycles and delivers a high reversible capacity of about 405 mAh g(-1)."