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Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents

Journal Article


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Abstract


  • There are no published data regarding the overall dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents. We therefore aim to describe the dietary GI and GL of participants of the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS), and to identify the main foods contributing to their GL. Children, aged 2–16 years, who provided two 24 h recalls in the 2007ANCNPAS were included. A final dataset of 4184 participants was analysed. GI of each food item was assigned using a previously published method. GL was calculated, and food groups contributing to the GL were described by age group and sex. The weighted mean dietary GI and GL of the participants were 54 (SD 5) and 136 (SD 44), respectively. Among the nutrients examined, Ca had the highest inverse relationship with GI (P,0·001), while percentage energy from starch was most positively associated with GI. The association between fibre density and GI was modest, and percentage energy from sugar had an inverse relationship with GI. Daily dietary GL contributed by energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor (EDNP) items in subjects aged 14–16 years was more than doubled that of subjects aged 2–3 years. To conclude, Australian children and adolescents were having a high-GI dietary pattern characterised by high-starchy food intake and low Ca intake. A significant proportion of their dietary GL was from EDNP foods. Efforts to reduce dietary GI and GL in children and adolescents should focus on energy-dense starchy foods.

    Key words: Dietary glycaemic index: Glycaemic index: Glycaemic load: Australian: Children

Authors


  •   Buyken, Annette E. (external author)
  •   Heyer, K (external author)
  •   Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu (external author)
  •   Flood, Vicki M.

Publication Date


  • 2011

Citation


  • Louie, J., Buyken, A. E., Heyer, K. & Flood, V. M. (2011). Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents. The British Journal of Nutrition: an international journal of nutritional science, 106 (8), 1273-1282.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-80054924269

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2139&context=hbspapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/hbspapers/1090

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 9

Start Page


  • 1273

End Page


  • 1282

Volume


  • 106

Issue


  • 8

Abstract


  • There are no published data regarding the overall dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents. We therefore aim to describe the dietary GI and GL of participants of the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS), and to identify the main foods contributing to their GL. Children, aged 2–16 years, who provided two 24 h recalls in the 2007ANCNPAS were included. A final dataset of 4184 participants was analysed. GI of each food item was assigned using a previously published method. GL was calculated, and food groups contributing to the GL were described by age group and sex. The weighted mean dietary GI and GL of the participants were 54 (SD 5) and 136 (SD 44), respectively. Among the nutrients examined, Ca had the highest inverse relationship with GI (P,0·001), while percentage energy from starch was most positively associated with GI. The association between fibre density and GI was modest, and percentage energy from sugar had an inverse relationship with GI. Daily dietary GL contributed by energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor (EDNP) items in subjects aged 14–16 years was more than doubled that of subjects aged 2–3 years. To conclude, Australian children and adolescents were having a high-GI dietary pattern characterised by high-starchy food intake and low Ca intake. A significant proportion of their dietary GL was from EDNP foods. Efforts to reduce dietary GI and GL in children and adolescents should focus on energy-dense starchy foods.

    Key words: Dietary glycaemic index: Glycaemic index: Glycaemic load: Australian: Children

Authors


  •   Buyken, Annette E. (external author)
  •   Heyer, K (external author)
  •   Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu (external author)
  •   Flood, Vicki M.

Publication Date


  • 2011

Citation


  • Louie, J., Buyken, A. E., Heyer, K. & Flood, V. M. (2011). Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents. The British Journal of Nutrition: an international journal of nutritional science, 106 (8), 1273-1282.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-80054924269

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2139&context=hbspapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/hbspapers/1090

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 9

Start Page


  • 1273

End Page


  • 1282

Volume


  • 106

Issue


  • 8