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Optimizing dietary fat in a weight-loss trial requires advice based on a structured "whole-of-diet" model

Journal Article


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Abstract


  • Dietary trials may link macronutrient intakes to health outcomes, but adherence to dietary targets

    requires advice based on an understanding of food composition and consumption patterns. Using data from a weight loss trial, we hypothesized that structured advice would be required for significant fat modification to occur. We compared participants' food choice patterns in response to advice based on a structured “whole-of-diet” model vs a general approach to healthy eating. Overweight participants (n = 122) were randomized to 2 advice arms (saturated fat [SFA] b 10% energy [E]): (1) general low fat (LF) control—(a) isoenergy, (b) −2000 kJ; and (2) structured LF high polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) (∼10% energy PUFA; PUFA to SFA ratio ≥1) (LF-PUFA)—(a) isoenergy, (b) −2000 kJ. Intakes of E and fat and fat from food groups (percentage of total fat intake) were compared at baseline, 3 months, P b .05. Baseline diets were similar, with most fat from high- SFA foods (59%): meat and milk-based staple meals and high-fat snacks. By 3 months, all groups reduced E and met the SFA target. Polyunsaturated fat targets were met by the LF-PUFA groups only (P b .001), enabling targeted between-group differences. In response to general advice, LF groups simply switched to LF alternatives of the same foods (P b .05). In comparison, LF-PUFA groups shifted fat intake to high-PUFA choices (54%), consuming more fat than controls from nuts (P b .001), whole grains (P b .001), and oils and spreads (P b .05). Significant reductions in E were achieved regardless of advice, but significant shifts in dietary fat profile relied on structured wholeof- diet advice on a range of meal and snack food sources of fat subtypes.

    Keywords: Macronutrients; Fat type; Food choice; Food patterns; Randomized controlled trial

Publication Date


  • 2011

Citation


  • Ross, L. J., Tapsell, L. C. & Probst, Y. (2011). Optimizing dietary fat in a weight-loss trial requires advice based on a structured "whole-of-diet" model. Nutrition Research, 31 (9), 683-690.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-82555163329

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4638&context=hbspapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/hbspapers/3586

Number Of Pages


  • 7

Start Page


  • 683

End Page


  • 690

Volume


  • 31

Issue


  • 9

Place Of Publication


  • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271210&_user=202616&_pii=S0271531711001540&_check=y&_origin=browse&_coverDate=30-Sep-2011&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlk-zSkzS&md5=20f92948df3ec511d158a1c951420166/1-s2.0-S0271531711001540-main.pdf

Abstract


  • Dietary trials may link macronutrient intakes to health outcomes, but adherence to dietary targets

    requires advice based on an understanding of food composition and consumption patterns. Using data from a weight loss trial, we hypothesized that structured advice would be required for significant fat modification to occur. We compared participants' food choice patterns in response to advice based on a structured “whole-of-diet” model vs a general approach to healthy eating. Overweight participants (n = 122) were randomized to 2 advice arms (saturated fat [SFA] b 10% energy [E]): (1) general low fat (LF) control—(a) isoenergy, (b) −2000 kJ; and (2) structured LF high polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) (∼10% energy PUFA; PUFA to SFA ratio ≥1) (LF-PUFA)—(a) isoenergy, (b) −2000 kJ. Intakes of E and fat and fat from food groups (percentage of total fat intake) were compared at baseline, 3 months, P b .05. Baseline diets were similar, with most fat from high- SFA foods (59%): meat and milk-based staple meals and high-fat snacks. By 3 months, all groups reduced E and met the SFA target. Polyunsaturated fat targets were met by the LF-PUFA groups only (P b .001), enabling targeted between-group differences. In response to general advice, LF groups simply switched to LF alternatives of the same foods (P b .05). In comparison, LF-PUFA groups shifted fat intake to high-PUFA choices (54%), consuming more fat than controls from nuts (P b .001), whole grains (P b .001), and oils and spreads (P b .05). Significant reductions in E were achieved regardless of advice, but significant shifts in dietary fat profile relied on structured wholeof- diet advice on a range of meal and snack food sources of fat subtypes.

    Keywords: Macronutrients; Fat type; Food choice; Food patterns; Randomized controlled trial

Publication Date


  • 2011

Citation


  • Ross, L. J., Tapsell, L. C. & Probst, Y. (2011). Optimizing dietary fat in a weight-loss trial requires advice based on a structured "whole-of-diet" model. Nutrition Research, 31 (9), 683-690.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-82555163329

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4638&context=hbspapers

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/hbspapers/3586

Number Of Pages


  • 7

Start Page


  • 683

End Page


  • 690

Volume


  • 31

Issue


  • 9

Place Of Publication


  • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271210&_user=202616&_pii=S0271531711001540&_check=y&_origin=browse&_coverDate=30-Sep-2011&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlk-zSkzS&md5=20f92948df3ec511d158a1c951420166/1-s2.0-S0271531711001540-main.pdf