We consider embedded hypersurfaces evolving by fully nonlinear ﬂows in which the normal speed of motion is a homogeneous degree one, concave or convex function of the principal curvatures, and prove a non-collapsing estimate: Precisely, the function which gives the curvature of the largest interior sphere touching the hypersurface at each point is a subsolution of the linearized ﬂow equation if the speed is concave. If the speed is convex then there is an analogous statement for exterior spheres. In particular, if the hypersurface moves with positive speed and the speed is concave in the principal curvatures, then the curvature of the largest touching interior sphere is bounded by a multiple of the speed as long as the solution exists. The proof uses a maximum principle applied to a function of two points on the evolving
hypersurface. We illustrate the techniques required for dealing with such functions in a proof of the known containment principle for ﬂows of hypersurfaces.