The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation
of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrientmetabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves
as amolecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is
activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression
of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target
genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed
analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although
many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.