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Electrochemical pneumatic actuators utilising carbon nanotube electrodes

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Electrochemical gas generation and consumption at carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes was investigated

    as a means of powering pneumatic actuators. Two different types of carbon nanotubes were evaluated in

    a variety of aqueous electrolytes. Chlorine gas generation from aqueous sodium chloride electrolyte was

    found to be the most suitable systeminvestigated, based on the ability to electrochemically reduce the gas

    generated. Carbon nanotubes produced by different techniques exhibit different chlorine oxidation and

    reduction capabilities with HiPCO nanotubes showing a higher electrochemical activity than nanotubes

    made by the laser ablation method. In a closed electrochemical cell fitted with a pressure transducer, the

    oxidation of Cl− ions to Cl2 gas was ∼40% efficient based on the charge passed. In contrast, the reduction

    of Cl2 gas pressurewas almost 100% efficient, although the exact mechanisms of gas reductionwere complicated

    by side reactions and kinetic processes. A carbon nanotube electrode of 2.4mm3 was capable of

    producing 0.5cm3 of gas at atmospheric pressure, or an increase of up to 50 kPa in a closed cell depending

    upon the headspace volume. Thework capacity based on the size of the electrodewas 5000 kJ/m3, which

    is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than other low voltage electrochemical actuators.

UOW Authors


  •   Xi, Binbin (external author)
  •   Whitten, Philip G. (external author)
  •   Gestos, Adrian A. (external author)
  •   Truong, Van T. (external author)
  •   Spinks, Geoff M.
  •   Wallace, Gordon

Publication Date


  • 2009

Citation


  • Xi, B., Whitten, P. G., Gestos, A., Truong, V. T., Spinks, G. Maxwell. & Wallace, G. G. (2009). Electrochemical pneumatic actuators utilising carbon nanotube electrodes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical: international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers, 138 (1), 48-54.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-63749091924

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/aiimpapers/380

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 6

Start Page


  • 48

End Page


  • 54

Volume


  • 138

Issue


  • 1

Abstract


  • Electrochemical gas generation and consumption at carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes was investigated

    as a means of powering pneumatic actuators. Two different types of carbon nanotubes were evaluated in

    a variety of aqueous electrolytes. Chlorine gas generation from aqueous sodium chloride electrolyte was

    found to be the most suitable systeminvestigated, based on the ability to electrochemically reduce the gas

    generated. Carbon nanotubes produced by different techniques exhibit different chlorine oxidation and

    reduction capabilities with HiPCO nanotubes showing a higher electrochemical activity than nanotubes

    made by the laser ablation method. In a closed electrochemical cell fitted with a pressure transducer, the

    oxidation of Cl− ions to Cl2 gas was ∼40% efficient based on the charge passed. In contrast, the reduction

    of Cl2 gas pressurewas almost 100% efficient, although the exact mechanisms of gas reductionwere complicated

    by side reactions and kinetic processes. A carbon nanotube electrode of 2.4mm3 was capable of

    producing 0.5cm3 of gas at atmospheric pressure, or an increase of up to 50 kPa in a closed cell depending

    upon the headspace volume. Thework capacity based on the size of the electrodewas 5000 kJ/m3, which

    is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than other low voltage electrochemical actuators.

UOW Authors


  •   Xi, Binbin (external author)
  •   Whitten, Philip G. (external author)
  •   Gestos, Adrian A. (external author)
  •   Truong, Van T. (external author)
  •   Spinks, Geoff M.
  •   Wallace, Gordon

Publication Date


  • 2009

Citation


  • Xi, B., Whitten, P. G., Gestos, A., Truong, V. T., Spinks, G. Maxwell. & Wallace, G. G. (2009). Electrochemical pneumatic actuators utilising carbon nanotube electrodes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical: international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers, 138 (1), 48-54.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-63749091924

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/aiimpapers/380

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 6

Start Page


  • 48

End Page


  • 54

Volume


  • 138

Issue


  • 1