Recent developments in mass spectrometry and chromatography provide newpossibilities for the identification and in some instances quantification of a wide range of lipids incomplex matrices. These advances in analytical technologies have provided a tantalizing glimpse of the true structural diversity of lipids in nature and have reinvigorated interest in the role of lipids in biology. While technological advances have been impressive, difficulties in the ready identification of sites of unsaturation (i.e., double bond position) within these molecules presents a significant impediment to understanding lipid biochemistry. This is of particular importance given the growing body of literature suggesting that the presence of naturally occurring lipid double bond isomers can have a significant influence, both positive and negative, on the development of pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This article provides a critical review of the current suite of analytical approaches to the challenge of identification of the position of carbon–carbon double bonds in intact lipids.