This article examines recent steps taken by Australia and France to combat illegal fishing in their
claimed maritime zones of jurisdiction around their adjacent sub-Antarctic island territories. These steps
comprise operational responses and legal developments, including the conclusion of two bilateral treaties
on cooperative surveillance and enforcement. Geographical and legal problems associated with addressing the illegal fishing threat in the Southern Ocean are highlighted. It is concluded that when they come to be tested by international legal authorities, some of the more innovative legal measures under discussion are likely to be appraised as being in conflict with some provisions of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea.