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Expanding and contracting optical flow patterns and simulator sickness

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Background: Sensory conflict may be a factor in simulator sickness

    (SS) given that visual input is often inconsistent with other sensory

    inputs. It was predicted that an expanding optical flow pattern would

    lead to more sensory conflict, and subsequently more SS than a contracting

    pattern. Methods: There were 16 individuals who participated

    in the experiment (6 men, 10 women, mean age 24.4 yrs). Subjects

    viewed a steadily expanding pattern of blue squares displayed on a

    computer monitor. In a second condition the pattern steadily contracted.

    Subjects completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) designed

    by Kennedy and colleagues both before and after a trial (5 min

    exposure to optic flow). A total SSQ score and three SSQ sub-scores

    (nausea, oculomotor, and disorientation) were obtained. Results: Mean

    post-treatment total SSQ scores (mean 28) in the expanding condition

    were higher than those obtained in the contracting condition (mean

    17). Nausea and oculomotor SSQ sub-scores were also higher in the

    expanding condition compared with the contracting condition. Conclusions:

    Experience with expanding flow patterns that result during forward

    self-motion, and the sensory inputs that usually accompany them,

    have resulted in a central nervous system expectancy about what the

    appropriate inputs should be during forward self-motion. Less experience

    with backwards self-motion (and contracting patterns) may result

    in a lower level of expectation regarding what the appropriate sensory

    inputs should be for contracting flow patterns. This lower level of neural

    expectancy may subsequently lead to less sensory conflict and less SS

    generated by contracting flow patterns.

UOW Authors


  •   Bubka, Andrea (external author)
  •   Bonato, Frederick (external author)
  •   Palmisano, Stephen

Publication Date


  • 2007

Citation


  • Bubka, A., Bonato, F. & Palmisano, S. A. (2007). Expanding and contracting optical flow patterns and simulator sickness. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 78 (4), 383-386.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-34247119295

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/hbspapers/1951

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 3

Start Page


  • 383

End Page


  • 386

Volume


  • 78

Issue


  • 4

Abstract


  • Background: Sensory conflict may be a factor in simulator sickness

    (SS) given that visual input is often inconsistent with other sensory

    inputs. It was predicted that an expanding optical flow pattern would

    lead to more sensory conflict, and subsequently more SS than a contracting

    pattern. Methods: There were 16 individuals who participated

    in the experiment (6 men, 10 women, mean age 24.4 yrs). Subjects

    viewed a steadily expanding pattern of blue squares displayed on a

    computer monitor. In a second condition the pattern steadily contracted.

    Subjects completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) designed

    by Kennedy and colleagues both before and after a trial (5 min

    exposure to optic flow). A total SSQ score and three SSQ sub-scores

    (nausea, oculomotor, and disorientation) were obtained. Results: Mean

    post-treatment total SSQ scores (mean 28) in the expanding condition

    were higher than those obtained in the contracting condition (mean

    17). Nausea and oculomotor SSQ sub-scores were also higher in the

    expanding condition compared with the contracting condition. Conclusions:

    Experience with expanding flow patterns that result during forward

    self-motion, and the sensory inputs that usually accompany them,

    have resulted in a central nervous system expectancy about what the

    appropriate inputs should be during forward self-motion. Less experience

    with backwards self-motion (and contracting patterns) may result

    in a lower level of expectation regarding what the appropriate sensory

    inputs should be for contracting flow patterns. This lower level of neural

    expectancy may subsequently lead to less sensory conflict and less SS

    generated by contracting flow patterns.

UOW Authors


  •   Bubka, Andrea (external author)
  •   Bonato, Frederick (external author)
  •   Palmisano, Stephen

Publication Date


  • 2007

Citation


  • Bubka, A., Bonato, F. & Palmisano, S. A. (2007). Expanding and contracting optical flow patterns and simulator sickness. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 78 (4), 383-386.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-34247119295

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/hbspapers/1951

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 3

Start Page


  • 383

End Page


  • 386

Volume


  • 78

Issue


  • 4