Background and Aims: Kidney stones affects 6-9% of the population, with an almost 30% risk of reoccurrence. Factors associated with kidney stone formation include male gender, ethnicity, family history and stone type. The underlying pathology of stone formation is complex and includes increased urine saturation, decreased urine stone inhibitors in addition to metabolic factors.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to the abrupt decrease in kidney function, resulting in retention of urea and other waste products and the dysregulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. AKI affects 10-15% of the hospitalised population and is associated with long-term outcomes, such as chronic kidney disease, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), cardiovascular disease, fractures and earlier mortality.
There is evidence that AKI may result in long-term renal damage and fibrosis. A potential effect is impairment in urine concentration which would limit kidney stone formation. However there has been no previous investigation about this potential association. We aim to investigate if there is an association between AKI and kidney stone formation.