Near-infrared (NIR) phosphors are fascinating materials that have numerous applications in diverse fields. In this study, a series of La3Ga5GeO14:Cr3+ phosphors, which was incorporated with Sn4+, Ba2+, and Sc3+, was successfully synthesized using solid-state reaction to explore every cationic site comprehensively. The crystal structures were well resolved by combining synchrotron X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction through joint Rietveld refinements. The trapping of free electrons induced by charge unbalances and lattice vacancies changes the magnetic properties, which was well explained by a Dyson curve in electron paramagnetic resonance. Temperature and pressure-dependent photoluminescence spectra reveal various luminescent properties between strong and weak fields in different dopant centers. The phosphor-converted NIR light-emitting diode (pc-NIR LED) package demonstrates a superior broadband emission that covers the near-infrared (NIR) region of 650-1050 nm. This study can provide researchers with new insight into the control mechanism of multiple-cation-site phosphors and reveal a potential phosphor candidate for practical NIR LED application.