© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is an emerging key technology to provide clean, renewable energy. Current state-of-the-art catalysts still rely on expensive and rare noble metals, however, the relatively cheap and abundant transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as exceptionally promising alternatives. Early studies in developing TMD-based catalysts laid the groundwork in understanding the fundamental catalytically active sites of different TMD phases, enabling a toolbox of physical, chemical, and electronic engineering strategies to improve the HER catalytic activity of TMDs. This report focuses on recent progress in improving the catalytic properties of TMDs toward highly efficient production of H2. Combining theoretical and experimental considerations, a summary of the progress to date is provided and a pathway forward for viable hydrogen evolution from TMD driven catalysis is concluded.