The container shipping activity has increased significantly with the growth of world economy and
global trade. However, due to the imbalance of global trade, there is always an imbalance between import and
export containers, which results in that some ports have a surplus of empty containers while the others have a
deficit. At a surplus port, storage cost and repositioning cost for shipping companies increase inevitably; while
at a deficit port, shipping companies have to lease or purchase empty containers to meet customers’ demand.
Empty container repositioning is one of the most effective ways to solve such imbalance problem, however the
repositioning cost has increased from $11 billion in 2003 to $16 billion in 2012. To reduce the related expense
for container repositioning, a significant body of studies have been done on container fleet management, and
most of them considered the price of leasing empty container given as input parameters. However, leasing price
plays an important role as a variable in the decision of container leasing activities by shipping companies...