Assessment practices are fundamental to effective writing instruction as they connect to the ways in which teachers plan and deliver quality opportunities for students to become effective meaning-makers through writing. However, assessing writing is difficult because it involves evaluating the products of writing and the processes of writing in relation to the context and audience for whom they are intended. Furthermore, assessing writing in a fair and objective manner is complicated because writing is a socially and culturally situated craft, creative, and a skill of meaning-making. Recent research suggests that writers are active and reflexive designers of text. This means that the writer is always present in a piece of writing and they must constantly make decisions about how to represent their subject matter and themselves through language. Therefore, it is important not only to assess the products and processes of writing, but also the reasoning behind the choices that writers make. This chapter presents three frameworks for assessing writing that together can guide a holistic approach to writing development and assessment.