© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Potassium ion batteries (KIB) have become a compelling energy-storage system owing to their cost effectiveness and the high abundance of potassium in comparison with lithium. However, its practical applications have been thwarted by a series of challenges, including marked volume expansion and sluggish reaction kinetics caused by the large radius of potassium ions. In line with this, the exploration of reliable anode materials affording high electrical conductivity, sufficient active sites, and structural robustness is the key. The synthesis of ZIF-8@ZIF-67 derived nitrogen-doped porous carbon confined CoP polyhedron architectures (NC@CoP/NC) to function as innovative KIB anode materials is reported. Such composites enable an outstanding rate performance to harvest a capacity of ≈200 mAh g−1 at 2000 mA g−1. Additionally, a high cycling stability can be gained by maintaining a high capacity retention of 93% after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Furthermore, the potassium ion storage mechanism of the NC@CoP/NC anode is systematically probed through theoretical simulations and experimental characterization. This contribution may offer an innovative and feasible route of emerging anode design toward high performance KIBs.