© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Three-dimensional (3D) aerogels based on in-situ growth of tetragonal molybdenum disulfide (1T-MoS2) on hydrothermally acid-treated porous carbon (HAPC) derived from sugarcane bagasse and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites were hydrothermally synthesized. The resultant composites, HAPC/MoS2/rGO (1:2:0.5) and HAPC/MoS2/rGO (1:1:0.5) were evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and as a supercapacitor, respectively. This HAPC/MoS2/rGO (1:2:0.5) composite delivers a high reversible discharge capacity of 952 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g−1 and outstanding high-rate capability as an anode for LIBs. While another composite HAPC/MoS2/rGO (1:1:0.5) reveals the best performance as a supercapacitor by delivering a specific capacitance of 385 F g−1 at 1 A g−1. Such an excellent and stable performance of the composites in energy storage can be ascribed as the synergistic effect of three-dimensional aerogel consisting of 1T-MoS2 nanosheets, graphene sheets, and porous carbon. The 1T-MoS2 layered structured nanosheets are tightly lying on the surface of HAPC, making their strong contact with each other and therefore reducing the diffusion path for both electrons and lithium ions. While the electrical conductivity of the composite system is enhanced by the graphene sheets.