The limited availability and rising cost of lithium have motivated research into sodium as an alternative ion for rechargeable batteries. However, anode development for such sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) has advanced slowly. Herein, novel binder-free ternary Sb−Fe−P composites were synthesized through a controllable electrodeposition method and were examined as prospective anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The Sb47Fe39P14 electrode exhibited a high desodiation capacity of 431.4 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1 with a capacity retention of 97.8% during the 200th cycle. Further, this anode delivered a high rate capacity (245.8 mA h g−1 at 2000 mA g−1). The promising Na-ion storage, cycle and rate performance of the Sb47Fe39P14 electrode are mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of its microstructure and active/inactive metal matrix. A kinetics investigation revealed that the rate capability of the Sb47Fe39P14 electrode can be attributed to the combination of primary pseudocapacitive and secondary solid-state diffusion contributions. The results of this study should enable the development of a controllable, scalable electrodeposition strategy and help explore other metallic composites with excellent lifespans and high rate capabilities for practical SIB applications.