Concrete-filled aluminum tubular (CFAT) columns have the advantages of a lightweight, high resistance to corrosion, good appearance and ease of maintenance over concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns. However, experimental and computational studies on the performance of CFAT columns have rarely been reported. This paper concerns with the fiber-based numerical analysis, structural behavior, and design of circular high strength CFAT stub columns loaded concentrically. A new concrete confinement model for computing the lateral pressures on the concrete core in CFAT circular columns is proposed and implemented in the computational model. The numerical analysis procedure is given for the determination of the nonlinear load-strain behavior of CFAT stub columns. The available experimental results of circular CFAT columns are used to assess the accuracy of the developed model. The computer model is employed to ascertain the significance of various geometric parameters in addition to material strengths on the responses of CFAT stub circular columns. The design equation based on Liang-Fragomeni's expression is proposed for quantifying the ultimate axial strengths of axially compressed CFAT short columns. The verification reveals that the computer modeling approach accurately quantifies the ultimate loads and nonlinear load-strain performance of CFAT columns with circular sections. The proposed design equation yields good calculations of the ultimate axial strengths of CFAT columns.