With the development of technology, electronic devices are becoming more miniaturized and multifunctional. With the development of small electronic devices, they are changing from the conventional accessory type, which is portable, to the patchable type, which can be attached to a person's apparel or body, and the eatable/implantable type, which can be directly implanted into the human body. In this regard, it is necessary to address various technical issues, such as high-capacity/high-efficiency small-sized battery technology, component miniaturization, low power technology, flexible technology, and smart sensing technology. In addition, there is a demand for self-powered wireless systems in particular devices. A piezoelectric/triboelectric nanogenerator (PENG/TENG) can generate electric energy from small amounts of mechanical energy such as from blood flow and heartbeats in the human body as well as human movement, so it is expected that it will enable the development of self-powered wireless systems. Due to their unique properties, such as flexibility, transparency, mechanical stability, and nontoxicity, 2D materials are optimal materials for the development of implantable and patchable self-powered nanodevices in the human body. In this Review, the studies related to patchable and implantable devices for the human body using PENGs/TENGs based on 2D materials are discussed.