Rechargeable magnesium batteries (RMBs) are promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems owing to their high safety and the low cost of magnesium resources. One of the main challenges for RMBs is to develop suitable high-performance cathode materials. Layered materials are one of the most promising cathode materials for RMBs due to their relatively high specific capacity and facile synthesis process. This review focuses on recent progress on layered cathode materials for RMBs, including layered oxides, sulfides, selenides, and other layered materials. In addition, effective strategies to improve the electrochemical performance of layered cathode materials are summarized. Moreover, future perspectives about the application of layered materials in RMBs are also discussed. This review provides some significant guidance for the further development of layered materials for RMBs.